Famagusta /ˌfæməˈɡʊstə, ˌfɑː-/ (Greek: Αμμόχωστος [locally [aˈmːoxostos]]; Turkish: Mağusa [mɑˈɰusɑ], or Gazimağusa [gɑːzimɑˈɰusɑ]) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. It is located east of Nicosia, and possesses the deepest harbour of the island. During the medieval period (especially under the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice), Famagusta was the island's most important port city, and a gateway to trade with the ports of the Levant, from where the Silk Road merchants carried their goods to Western Europe. The old walled city and parts of the modern town presently fall within the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in Gazimağusa District of which it is the capital.
In antiquity, the town was known as Arsinoe (Ancient Greek: Ἀρσινόη), after Arsinoe II of Egypt, and was mentioned by that name byStrabo. In Greek it is called Ammochostos (Αμμόχωστος), meaning "hidden in [the] sand". This name developed into Famagusta(originally Famagouste in French and Famagosta in Italian), used in Western European languages, and to its Turkish name, Mağusa. In Turkish, the city is also called Gazimağusa; Gazi means veteran in Turkish, and the city has been officially awarded with the title after 1974 (compare Gaziantep). In Armenian, Famagusta is called Ֆամակուսթա Famagust'a. The old town is nicknamed "the city of 365 churches" owing to a legend that at its peak, Famagusta boasted one church for each day of the year.
Nicosia (/ˌnɪkəˈsiːə/ nik-ə-see-ə; Greek: Λευκωσία [lefkoˈsi.a]; Turkish: Lefkoşa [lefˈkoʃa]; is the largest city on the island of Cyprus. It is located near the centre of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.
Nicosia is the capital and seat of government of the Republic of Cyprus, and as such is the farthest southeast of all EU member states'capitals. It has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10th century. Nicosia was divided into the southern Greek Cypriot and the northern Turkish Cypriot parts in 1963, following the intercommunal violence that broke out in the city. Today, the northern part of the city is the capital of Northern Cyprus, a de facto state that is considered to be occupiedCypriot territory by the international community.
Apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island's financial capital and its main international business centre. In 2012, Nicosia was the 5th richest city in the world in relative purchasing power.
Kyrenia (Greek: Κερύνεια [locally [t͡ʃeˈɾiɳˑa]]; Turkish: Girne [[ˈɟiɾne]]) is a city on the northern coast of Cyprus, noted for its historic harbour and castle. It is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus.
While there is evidence showing that Kyrenia has been populated since ca. 5800–3000 BC, it is traditionally accepted that the city was founded by Achaeans from the Peloponnese after the Trojan War. As the town grew prosperous, the Romans established the foundations of its castle in the 1st century AD. Kyrenia grew in importance after the 9th century due to the safety offered by the castle, and played a pivotal role under the Lusignan rule as the city never capitulated. The castle has been most recently modified by the Venetians in the 15th century, but the city surrendered to the Ottoman Empire in 1571.
The city's population was almost equally divided between Muslims and Christians in 1831, with a slight Muslim majority. However, with the advent of British rule, many Turkish Cypriots fled to Anatolia, and the town came to be predominantly inhabited by Greek Cypriots. While the city suffered little intercommunal violence, its Greek Cypriot inhabitants, numbering around 2,650, fled or were forcefully displaced in the wake of the Turkish invasion in 1974. Currently, the city is populated by Turkish Cypriots, mainland Turkish settlers, and British expats, with a municipal population of 33,207.
Kyrenia is a cultural and economical centre, described as the touristic capital of Northern Cyprus. It is home to numerous hotels, nightlife and a port. It hosts an annual culture and arts festival with hundreds of participating artists and performers and is home to three universities with a student population around 14,000.
Trikomo (Greek: Τρίκωμο) or Yeni İskele (in Turkish) is a town in north-eastern Mesaoria in Cyprus. De facto, it is under the control ofNorthern Cyprus. Trikomo gained municipality status on 1 June 1998. It is the administrative center of the İskele District of Northern Cyprus.
Morphou (Greek: Μόρφου; Turkish: Omorfo or Güzelyurt) is a town in the northwestern part of Cyprus, under the de facto control ofNorthern Cyprus. It is the administrative center of the Güzelyurt District of Northern Cyprus. Having been a predominantly Greek Cypriot community before the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the town is now inhabited by Turkish Cypriots. With a population of 18,000 people, the town is famous for its apples, vegetables, grapefruit and melons, for which a large proportion of the citrus fruits are exported and the remainder are turned into fruit juice and canned for local consumption and export. Morphou is also famous for its annual Orange Festival, which is a major event lasting two weeks.